digestive system terminology list

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM TERMINOLOGY REVIEW. Memorial Hermann Foundation, a 501(c)(3) Charitable Organization. Knowledge and understanding of the medical terminology pertaining to some of the more common digestive system diseases is an important aspect of health literacy. Region: Head, Neck, Thorax, Abdomen, Pelvis. See it in 3D! Digestion involves the breakdown of food into small … See it in 3D! Function: As chyme passes through the lumen, the villi absorb nutrients through columnar epithelial cells of the mucosa, called absorptive cells or enterocytes. These muscles work together to give the tongue its great flexibility. Jiwoon Kim. Coding Info on. The sigmoid colon is the shortest and narrowest part of the colon. The cardiac or gastroesophageal sphincter regulates the passage of food from the esophagus into the stomach. Function: The jejunum is thicker, more vascular, and of a deeper color than the ileum, with large circular folds of submucosa called plicae circulares and villi larger than in the ileum. See it in 3D! See it in 3D! Appendicitis is an inflammation of the appendix, a … stomach: a muscular, baglike organ of the digestive tract; attached to the lower end of the esophagus. Digestive tube that extends from the mouth to the anus. Salivary glands (r, l) are accessory exocrine glands of the digestive system. Appendicitis is an inflammation of the appendix. The ability of the digestive system to hold fluids and food. Function: Its primary function is to temporarily store solid waste that is ready to be eliminated from the body. The transverse colon is a horizontal segment of the colon. Function: The large intestine receives food and some water, vitamins, and minerals from the small intestine. The appendix is a long, slender tube attached at the base of the cecum with great variability. Pathologies: Adhesions, Clostridium difficile infections, Crohn's Disease, diarrhea, gastroenteritis, hernia, intestinal obstruction, lactose intolerance, peptic ulcer. saliva: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the salivary glands and mucous glands of the mouth. This process, called defecation, involves contraction of rectal muscles, relaxation of the internal anal sphincter, and an initial contraction of the skeletal muscle of the external anal sphincter. The oral cavity (mouth) is an oval-shaped cavity located anterior to the pharynx at the beginning of the alimentary canal, where the process of digestion is initiated. See our privacy policy for additional details. Function: The epiglottis is usually directed upward toward the pharynx, but during swallowing, muscles pull it down to close the entry to the larynx and prevent food from entering the trachea. These are common terms and definitions associated with the gastrointestinal system and digestive problems or diseases. Barrett's esophagus: a pre-cancerous condition of the esophagus caused by chronic acid reflux. Body Parts. It serves to moisten the oral cavity, to initiate the digestion of starches, and to aid in the chewing and swallowing of food. Prepare for the Terminology Test while having fun practicing! Tax EIN: 74-1653640. Pathologies: GERD, hiatal hernia, peptic ulcer. Write. Alimentary canal – It is the part of the digestive system formed by the esophagus, stomach, small intestine and large intestine. Terms in this set (61) Absorption. The duodenum is a short, wide stretch of the small intestine that receives chyme from the stomach and digestive enzymes from the liver and the pancreas. When the sphincter of Oddi is relaxed, bile secreted from the liver and pancreatic juices secreted from the pancreas enter the duodenum to aid in chemical digestion and to reduce acidity. Health Literacy and Digestive System Diseases. What is the medical term for Lips? Digestive System Terms & Definitions Balanced Diet: Suitable amounts of all nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, mineral salts, vitamins, fibre and water) required for normal healthy living. Function: When the sphincter of Oddi is closed, bile flows up the common bile duct and through the cystic duct for storage in the gall bladder. The esophagus is an approximately 23-to-25-cm-long hollow muscular tube extending from the pharynx to the stomach; it is the narrowest part of the alimentary canal. See it in 3D! Use the links at the bottom of any email to manage the type of emails you receive or to unsubscribe. STUDY. The 1.2- to 1.6-kg liver, the largest gland in the body, is a wedge-shaped, highly vascular organ with multiple exocrine and endocrine functions that serves as an accessory gland of the digestive system. Additional Suffixes and Digestive System Terminology. Abscess: A swollen, infected, … Digestive enzymes play a key role in regulating and maintaining the functions of the digestive system properly. Bowel: Another word for intestines. Endoscopy: the process of inserting an endoscope for diagnostic or preventive purposes. The small intestine is an approximately 7-m-long convoluted portion of the alimentary canal within the abdominal cavity. Cholangioscopy: examination of the bile ducts via endoscopy. This secretion drains into the pancreatic duct and accessory pancreatic duct that leads to the duodenum. See it in 3D! Pathologies: Canker sores, cold sores, gum disease. Digestive health requires a complex system of nerves and muscles to propel the products of digestion from the throat all the way through to a bowel movement. See it in 3D! See it in 3D! Refer to a Medical Terminology Dictionary for a complete list of all current Medical Terminology. Here are some digestive system terms for kids. Anatomy of the Digestive System Facts. Do you know any digestive system vocabulary? Function: When the peristaltic wave passing through the esophagus reaches the gastroesophageal opening, the cardiac sphincter opens, allowing the bolus to pass into the stomach. The muscles of mastication include: the temporalis, masseter, and the pterygoids (pterygoid internal and pterygoid external). The large intestine is a 1.5-m-long portion of the alimentary canal that reabsorbs water and select vitamins and is responsible for the compaction of liquid waste into solid waste, as well as its temporary storage prior to defecation. D. Both A and C 2. A. Cheil/o B. Gingiv/o C. Labi/o D. Both A and C 2. salivary ducts: Any of the ducts which transport saliva. We have received your inquiry, and a team member will contact you soon. What is the medical term for Lips? Accessory Organs of the Digestive System 4:59 Important Functions of Digestion & Related Terminology 6:03 Go to Medical Vocabulary for the Gastrointestinal System The surface of the small intestine is composed of villi, small fingerlike projections that extend into the lumen and increase the intestinal wall’s surface area, allowing for increased nutrient absorption. Inside this tube is a lining called the mucosa. Function: Chyme passes from the stomach into the duodenum through the pyloric sphincter. Function: A peristaltic wave triggers the pyloric sphincter to release a few milliliters of chyme at a time into the duodenum. sdfafa3432. The glands of the digestive system consist of the tongue, salivary glands, liver, gall bladder, and pancreas. See it in 3D! Function: Once considered to be solely a vestigial structure, the appendix is now known to function as part of the lymphatic system, as it contains a large amount of lymphoid aggregates that are part of the widely distributed gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). Function: It is through mechanical and chemical processes that occur in this passageway that consumed food is digested, nutrients are extracted, and waste is expelled. Additional Suffixes and Digestive System Terminology . accessory duct (also, duct of Santorini) duct that runs from the pancreas into the duodenum. Download Full PDF Package. Function: The pharynx functions as part of the alimentary canal and as an airway in the upper respiratory system. The digestive system(figure 24.1) consists of the digestive tract, a tube extending from the mouth to the anus, and its associ- ated accessory organs,primarily glands, which secrete fluids into the digestive tract. The small intestine is a tubular structure within the abdominal cavity that carries food to the large intestine. Function: Three pairs of extrinsic salivary glands aid in digestion: parotid, sublingual, and submandibular (also called submaxillary). C. Labi/o. Autotrophic Feeding: Way of feeding; food is made by the plants themselves. This handout does not represent a complete or total list of terms. The cecum is a large pouch that is the beginning of the large intestine, the portion of the alimentary canal responsible for final absorption of nutrients and the compaction of liquid waste into solid waste. Digestive system - Terminology Quiz by. PLAY. Help Desk; Contact Us; Keep In Touch. Enteroscope: a tool used to examine the inside of the intestines, Esophagus: the muscular tube that connects the throat to the stomach, Gallbladder: the organ that works in conjunction with the liver and pancreas to assist with food digestion, Gallstones: a small mass in the gallbladder that blocks the bile ducts, Gastrointestinal: relating to the stomach and intestines, Liver: the organ responsible for blood filtration, detoxification and metabolism, Pancreas: a gland that secretes digestive enzymes into the intestine, Proctoscope: a tool used to examine the anus and rectum, Rectum: the area where the large intestine meets the anus, Sigmoid colon: the part of the large intestine close to the rectum and anus, Sigmoidoscope: an endoscope used to examine the last one-third of the colon, Small intestine/bowel: the longest part of the digestive system, Stent: a device that keeps tubes or vessels open, Stomach: located in the upper abdomen, where the initial stages of digestion occur, Strictures: the irregular narrowing of a passage or duct, Trachea: also known as the 'windpipe,' a major connector that carries air to the lungs, Ulcers: a painful, open sore on the skin or a mucous membrane, Ultrasound: a procedure in which images are generated by sound vibrations, Upper GI Tract: the area of the digestive system that includes the esophagus, stomach and duodenum, Varices: the irregular dilation or swelling of a vein or veins. A. Cheil/o. Pathologies: Adhesions, appendicitis, Clostridium difficile infections, colonic polyps, diarrhea, diverticulosis and diverticulitis, hernia, intestinal obstruction, irritable bowel syndrome, ulcerative colitis. Spell. The muscles of mastication are a subgroup of the muscles of the head. Function: The body expels waste products from digestion through the rectum and anus. Ampulla of Vater – The nexus of the common bile duct and pancreatic ducts immediately prior to entry into the duodenum. Alimentary Canal. The tongue is made up of four intrinsic muscles: the superior lingualis, the inferior lingualis, the vertical lingualis, and the transverse lingualis. Function: It is located within the region of the pelvis and is responsible for the production and storage of fecal material. These enzymes not only helps in digestion but due to excess or lack of these enzymes, one can face difficulties in digestions too. System: Digestive. 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